In the old days, scientists Watson and Francis Crick were able in the mid-twentieth century to discover the basic form of DNA, which led to the identification of a lot of information about how genetic information is stored and preserved. Acids are what cause the difference between humans, in terms of: shape, and color.
Components of Nucleic Acids
Chromosomes in living cells consist of two basic materials:
DNA, which forms the genetic material, and a group of proteins known as his tones; The DNA strand repeatedly coils around it, forming the nucleosides. It leads to condensation of the genetic material; which helps to store them in a small space inside the nucleus of cells.
RNA, of which there are multiple types, and each of these types plays a fundamental role in translating the genetic material in the DNA molecule into several proteins, which perform all the functions necessary for the life of living organisms.
The differences between DNA and RNA
There are many differences between them, the most important of which are:
- Deoxyribonucleic acid, commonly known as DNA
- Ribonucleic Acid, commonly known as RNA
2-The amount in the cell: DNA is quantitatively constant, while the amount of RNA changes.
Types of DNA and RNA
RNA types have 3 types:
A – Messenger (Messenger RNA) mRNA
Copies part of the genetic code and transfers it to the ribosomes.
B – Transfer
Transporting essential amino proteins to the protein-producing factories in the cell
C – Ribosomal RNA rRNA
It is one of the most important components of the ribosomal plant. Therefore it is very important for protein production.
Types of DNA:
Only two types:
- Intra nuclear: This type is found inside the cell nucleus.
- Extra nuclear: is found outside the cell nucleus.
DNA is less resistant to damage from UV rays, while RNA is more resistant to damage.
The difference between DNA and RNA functions
When we look at both acids, we find that they have two functions: In the short term, they encode all our genetic information and act as a printer that produces the genetic life of our cells. In the long term, the DNA acts as a storage device similar to a “flash memory” drive or flash memory that transmits that genetic information from one generation to another. As for RNA its job is to read and decode the information in DNA in a multi-step process.
Ribonucleic acid RNA is divided into several parts, the first of which is: Messenger RNA (mRNA), which copies the parts of the genetic code, and transfers those parts to the ribosome’s, which are cellular factories that produce proteins from those genetic codes that have been copied.
The other part of the ribonucleic acid is called Transfer RNA (tRNA) and its function is to bring the amino acids that are the building blocks of the protein present in our cells, and transfer them to the cellular factories «ribosomes» as required in the instructions of the messenger RNA Protein.
Differences between DNA and RNA structure
The nucleotides in DNA contain 5 molecules of pentagon, a nitrogen base and a phosphate, while RNA consists of shorter strands, and sometimes forms a temporary helical structure.
As for the genetic makeup of them; Both contain sugars, but DNA contains a type of sugar called deoxyribose, and RNA contains ribose sugar molecules, and when comparing the stability of both, we find that DNA is more stable because of its structure that contains a hydroxyl group that contains one oxygen molecule less than oxygen It is present in RNA, and RNA is more resistant to damage than DNA, and the main difference between them is that DNA is mainly found inside the cell nucleus, with a small amount of it in the mitochondria, while RNA acid is formed inside the cell, but then it moves to designated places Inside the cytoplasm.
DNA is one of the most famous biological molecular compounds in the body, as every cell in the body contains DNA, which is located inside the cell nucleus, which distinguishes you from other living things.
The genetic material carries the information and instructions for development, growth and reproduction on the genes, where the genetic information is transmitted from the parents to the children and approximately half of this information is from the father and the second half from the mother.
The genetic change in this genetic material is the reason why someone has blue eyes instead of brown, the reason behind certain diseases, and all the things that lead to your formation and distinguish you from others.
In short, the genetic material contains the genetic codes that are characteristic of every human being, and the information needed to build proteins important for various body functions.
The composition of the genetic material DNA
The genetic material consists of two molecules wrapped around each other, each one of these molecules is a long sequence of nucleotides, which consist of the following:
- Phosphate molecule: A sugar molecule, which is made of 5 carbon atoms
- A molecule that contains nitrogen, and there are several types of them:
The arrangement of these regions is what constitutes the genetic codes.
It is worth noting that the linkage of the chains with each other to form the genetic material is through the association of adenine with thymine and cytosine with guanine, and that the length of the genetic material is determined by the sugar and phosphate molecules.
Most of the genetic material is found inside the cell nucleus (nucleus), and some is in mitochondria.
And since we have a large amount of genetic material, which is approximately 2 meters in each cell, and since the cell’s nucleus is characterized by its small size, the genetic material wraps around a protein called his tones to become its new name, chromatin, the chromatin condenses through a certain process. Then it is coated into the chromosomes.
Each chromosome consists of one DNA molecule, and the human being has 23 pairs of chromosomes, knowing that chromosome number 1 is the longest with about 9,000 genes and chromosome number 21 the smallest and has nearly 4,000 genes.
What is a Gene?
It is the basic physical unit of heredity that works as a specific code or instructions for the manufacture of protein molecules, as each molecule of the genetic material, or in other words, each group of nucleotides symbolizes a specific gene that is used to produce a specific type of protein, and a person has about 25,000-30,000 Jen almost.
And every person has two copies of each gene, a copy from the mother and a copy from the father, and it is worth noting that small differences in the sequence of rules of the genetic material when forming each gene contribute to the appearance of differences in the unique and distinct physical features of each person.
The formation of proteins from the genetic material DNA
In order to make proteins from the genes on DNA, there are two main steps here.
It is the process by which the genetic codes on the genetic material are copied in order to manufacture what is known as mRNA, this molecule is a copy of the DNA but from one chain and it does not have the thymine molecule and is replaced by the molecule (Uracil).
It is the process by which a messenger (mRNA) is translated into amino acids, as every 3 nitrogenous bases represent a symbol for one amino acid and this symbol is called a codon.