We’ll begin our study of web programming by learning the core language for writing web pages: Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). HTML describes the contents of your page, such as headings, paragraphs, images, and lists. The version of HTML we’ll learn is the latest and most standard, called XHTML. The pages you’ll write will work in any modern browser. This chapter doesn’t attempt to provide a complete list of HTML tags and attributes. Certain aspects of the language, such as forms and tables, are left for later chapters that focus on those elements. Each of our chapters will include a larger example called a “case study” that we will develop throughout or at the end of the chapter. This chapter’s case study will be a recurring example of a blog page about travels to various far-away lands. As we learn new concepts in this chapter, we’ll apply many of them to improve this page.
2.1 Basic HTML :
In this section, we’ll discuss the basics of HTML and web pages, as well as a brief history of the language and how it came to be the way it is today. In the following sections, we’ll dive into the details of HTML syntax for creating complex web pages.
2.1.1 History :
Since its creation in 1991 by Tim Betners-Lee, one of the founding fathers of the Internet, HTML has been the dominant language for creating web pages. HTML is a language consisting of text content surrounded by markings that specify the meaning of the content. As with many languages, HTIVIL has gone through different versions and standardization processes over the years:
• 1993: Initial official proposed description of HTML submitted to the IETF standards group.
• 1995: HTML 2 becomes an official standard language by a publication called RFC 1866.
• 1996-97: HTML 3.2 standardizes various features including forms, tables, image maps, and internationalization.
• 1997: HTML 4 is proposed by W3C standards body, adding style sheets, scripting, frames, embedding objects, internationalization, and accessibility for disabilities. • HTML 4.01, the last major version of the language, is published in 1999 by W3C. A majority of the pages on the web today still use HTML 4.01 as their stated language.
• 2000-01: XHTML, a more standardized offshoot of HTML based on a language named XML, is proposed by W3C.
Download Full Pdf version or from here