The soil classification, i.e. division into categories and subcategories with pertaining symbols enables understanding of mechanical behavior of soil under the influence of load.
Traditionally, soils were divided according to grain size into noncoherent or coarse-grained soils (gravel and sand), and coherent
or fine-grained soils (silt and clay).
Non-coherent soils are then categorized based on their relative proportion in the total mass of the soil tested, while coherent soils are categorized according to their plasticity properties. The procedure for describing and labeling of soils is called soil classification. The world’s most widely known and used soil classification is the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS), created through the modification of the Airfield Classification System (ACS). Classifications according to the British Soil classification System (BSCS) and the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) are widely used in Europe . Kovacevic and Juric-Kacunic developed the European Soil Classification System (ESCS) for engineering purposes, which makes use of the soil description and symbols in line with the European standard EN ISO 14688-1.
The system is based on soil classification principles prescribed in EN ISO 14688-2. In order to ensure compliance with the European guidelines for soil description and classification, Kovačević et al. placed emphasis on the need to develop information support for the implementation of ESCS and USCS in order to facilitate their parallel use, i.e. on the need to transfer to and adopt the soil classification that is in line with European guidelines.