The process of preserving and protecting a database against unauthorized access or cyber-attacks is known as database security. Encryption, authentication, backup, application security, and physical security are all aspects of database security in DBMS that should be addressed in your firm. We’ll go over each form of database security technique that may be utilized to protect a database in this article.
Different Types of Database Security in DBMS
The main objective of database security in DBMS is to keep sensitive information in a database secure while also maintaining the database’s confidentiality, integrity, and availability. The types of database security in DBMS are key techniques for providing database security.
Database security in DBMS is essential to protect against cyber-attacks, which can result in financial loss, brand reputation damage, business continuity, and customer confidence. The following are the main database security types:
Database authentication is a type of database security in DMBS that verifies the user’s login credentials that are stored in the database. If the user’s login credentials match those in the database, the user will be able to access the database. That means the user needs to be authenticated to access your database.
If an authentic user has some data access privileges, he will not be able to access data that he does not have access to. Your database will not be accessible by any unauthorized or malicious users. As a result, to ensure database security, database authentication is required.
2. Database Encryption
Encryption is one of the most effective types of database security in DBMS because it protects your data from unauthorized access while it is being stored and transmitted over the internet.
Different encryption algorithms, such as AES, MD5, and SHA 1, are used to encrypt and decrypt various types of sensitive data.
Within a database, an encryption algorithm typically converts plain text data into a ciphertext of unreadable formats. So, if hackers gain access to your database, they won’t be able to use it until the data is decrypted.
It is strongly advised that you encrypt your sensitive data before storing it in a database because it provides security and protects against cyber-attacks.
3. Backup Database
Another type of database security in DBMS is backup, which is used to restore data in the event of data loss, data corruption, hacking, or natural disasters. It copies or archives the database on secondary storage in real-time.
If the primary and secondary servers are configured in the same area and the primary server fails, the secondary server may fail as well. As a result, you won’t be able to execute your application, and your computer will shut down until you can fix it.
As a result, it is recommended that the secondary server be physically configured in a separate location to ensure database security. If the primary server is unavailable, you can recover the database from the secondary server.
Database backups are classified into three types:
- Full backup,
- Differential backup, and
- Incremental backup.
You can customize your backup strategy based on your company’s needs and available time.
However, you can consider the following backup strategy:
- Determine the backup schedule and backup types
- Make ensure database backup regularly
- Ensure your backup location is physically separate
4. Physical Security
Physical database security in DBMS is the protection of the database server room against unauthorized access. The database server should be housed in a secure, climate-controlled environment.
Only DBA (Database Administration) and authorized IT (Information Technology) officers have access to the server room. If your database server is located in a cloud data center, your service provider will take the necessary steps to secure your database. In that case, before hosting your database in the cloud, you can ask them how they will secure your database.
It is also recommended that the database server and application not be hosted on the same server, if at all possible. Both servers should be physically isolated for security and performance reasons.
You can also create a policy for the database server room, such as requiring the room to be locked at all times and allowing only authorized IT officers to inspect the server room’s environment.
5. Application security
To protect against web attacks such as SQL injection, you must secure your application and database. SQL injection is the most common type of web attack in which a hacker takes control of an application’s database to steal sensitive information or destroy the database.
In this method, the attacker uses web page input to introduce malicious code into a SQL query. When an application fails to correctly sanitize SQL statements, this occurs. As a result, an attacker can use their malicious SQL statements to get access to your database.
You can secure your application against SQL injection attacks by implementing the following preventative measures:
- Use of Prepared Statements
- Use a Web Application Firewall
- Updating your system
- Validating user input
- Limiting privileges
- Use Stored Procedures
6. Access Control
To ensure database security, you must restrict unauthorized users’ access to the database. Only authorized users have access to the database, and no unauthorized users have access to the database. Create user accounts for DBAs who will access the database, assign them a role, and limit their access to your database.
So, access control is a type of database security that can protect your database by preventing unauthorized users from accessing it.
7. Web Application Firewall
A web application firewall, or WAF, is an application-based cyber security tool that is the best practice for database security in DBMS. WAF was created to protect applications by filtering, monitoring, and blocking malicious HTTP traffic.
This database security measure restricts who can access the application and prevents intruders from accessing it through the internet. A web application firewall, which will protect your application and database from malicious users, should be used to secure your application from malicious users.
You can use one of the following Web Application Firewall in your system:
- Fortinet FortiWeb
- Citrix NetScaler AppFirewall
- F5 Advanced WAF
- Radware Appwall
- Symantec WAF
- Barracuda WAF
- Imperva WAF
- Sophos XG Firewall
8. Strong password
This is a simple but important tip for ensuring database security. As a DBA or IT officer, you should always use strong passwords for database logins and never share your password with anyone.
If you use a simple password, such as your mobile number, employee ID, or date of birth, anybody will try to log in using these passwords. As a result, you will lose control of your database.
Create a strong password for database login that includes a combination of letters, numbers, and special characters (minimum of 10 characters total) and change it regularly. For example, S$#hk87@478r*, can be a strong password for your database login.
9. Database Auditing
Auditing is a type of database security control that can aid in the detection and identification of unauthorized access to your DBMS (Database Management System).
Database auditing checks the log files regularly to see who accessed the database, when they accessed it, how long they stayed there, and what they did in the database. It is simple to determine whether or not unauthorized access has been granted to the database server.
Database auditing is a type of database protection that can provide overall monitoring for your organization’s database security in DBMS.
Database security in DBMS is a critical component of any website or web application. An attacker can acquire access to your database if you do not adequately secure it. As a result, database security in DMBS is crucial for preventing cyber-attacks that can result in financial loss, brand reputation damage, business continuity, and customer confidence.